World Bank

The World Bank (French: Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group. The World Bank’s stated goal is the reduction of poverty which its Articles of Agreement define as commitments to the promotion of foreign investment and international trade and to... Read More

European Central Bank

Managed Futures
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world. It is one of the world’s most important central banks and is one of the seven institutions of the European Union(EU) listed in the Treaty on European Union (TEU). The capital stock of the bank is owned by the... Read More

Russian ruble

Alpha Z Advisors
The Russian ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopeks(sometimes written as kopecks or copecks; Russian: копе́йка kopeyka, plural: копе́йки kopeyki). The ruble was the currency of the Russian Empire and of the Soviet Union (as the Soviet ruble). Today, apart from Russia, Belarus and Transnistria use currencies with the same name. The ruble was the world’s first decimal currency: it was decimalised in 1704... Read More

Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union. Currently 19 of 28 member states use the euro: this group of states is known as the eurozone. It is the second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents. The currency is also officially used by the institutions of the European Union and four other European countries, as well as... Read More

United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. For most practical purposes, it is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting purposes. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars (12 U.S.C. § 418). Since... Read More

United States Mint

The United States Mint produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; that responsibility belongs to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. The Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, and soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing... Read More

Quiet period

In United States securities law, the quiet period (or waiting period) has “historically , a quiet period of time extended from the time a company files a registration statement with the SEC until SEC staff declared the registration statement effective. During that period, the federal securities laws limited what information a company and related parties can release to the public.” Under the rules of the Securities Act of 1933, as modified June... Read More

Initial coin offering

An initial coin offering (ICO) or initial currency offering (derived form initial public offering) is a means of crowdfunding centered around cryptocurrency, which can be a source of capital for startup companies. In an ICO, a quantity of the crowdfunded cryptocurrency is sold to investors in the form of “tokens”, in exchange for legal tender or other cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin or ethereum. These tokens are promoted as future functional units of currency if or when the ICO’s funding goal... Read More

Initial public offering

Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also retail (individual) investors; an IPO is underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchange. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a privately held company is transformed into a public company.... Read More

Commodity pool operator

A Commodity pool operator (CPO) is an individual or organization that solicits or receives funds to use in the operation of a commodity pool, syndicate, investment trust, or other similar fund, specifically for trading in commodity interests. Such interests include commodity futures, swaps, options and/or leveragetransactions. A commodity pool may refer to funds that trade in commodities and can include hedge funds. A CPO may make trading decisions for a... Read More